I don’t go out to eat often, but when I do I rarely leave with leftovers. And what I mean by this is that I either inhale it all or I get a box to go and somehow end up leaving it on the table, much to my dismay later on. This problem of mine is particularly annoying when I purposely ordered enough food to cover two meals. I have to make a conscious effort to hold onto my to-go box when getting ready to leave or else it’ll never make it. One time I remembered right as I was walking out the restaurant door, but it was already too late. The waiting staff was just too fast and efficient for me .
The best thing about cooking and eating at home? All my leftovers stay with me. In fact, most of the time when I make recipes that serve multiple people, I portion out the serving I’m going to eat and then divide the rest amongst lunch-box-sized containers for lunch that week. This makes me particularly happy when I get to enjoy awesome things such as these sloppy joes more than once.
Sloppy Joes don’t have to come from a can. And they also don’t always have to be made with the same traditional seasonings either. When I saw this recipe using hoisin sauce I had to make it. And I am glad I did because it totally beats any canned sloppy joe sauce any day.
One year ago: Pasta with Brussels Sprouts, Gorgonzola & Pecans
GROUND TURKEY SLOPPY JOES WITH HOISIN AND CILANTRO
1 Tbsp canola oil
1 medium red onion, halved and thinly sliced
1 garlic clove, mashed to a paste with 1/4 tsp salt
3/4 tsp grated fresh ginger
1/8 tsp cayenne pepper
1 lb. ground turkey
1 (8 oz.) can tomato sauce
1/4 cup hoisin sauce
1/3 cup chopped fresh cilantro
2 Tbsp fresh lime juice
4 sandwich rolls, toasted
- Add the oil to a large nonstick skillet and set the pan over medium heat. When the oil shimmers, add the onion and cook until softened, stirring occasionally, about 5 minutes. Stir in the garlic paste, ginger and cayenne and cook for 30 seconds to 1 minute, just until fragrant. Add the ground turkey to the pan and brown, breaking it up with a wooden spoon as it cooks. Once the turkey is browned, stir in the tomato sauce and the hoisin. Continue cooking for 5-7 more minutes, or until the sauce has thickened. Turn off the heat under the pan and stir in the cilantro and lime juice. Divide the mixture evenly among the rolls and serve.
Source: Tracey’s Culinary Adventures
Meatloaves. Yes dad, if you are reading this I willingly made myself meatloaf for dinner. But I discovered the secret to overcoming their mushy texture which is the primary reason for my distaste for them all my life – minis! When you make them mini it’s just like eating a meatball and are less mushy. After I discovered this fact while reviewing The New Way to Cook Light cookbook, I decided to try out another mini recipe.
Since I recently received a ginormous shipment of Chobani Greek yogurt, I decided to make some mini meatloaves using some of it. Fittingly, I made Greek meatloaves with the Greek yogurt! With the additional flavors of mint and cucumber this meal is perfect for the spring-time and can be ready in under 30 minutes. Did I mention that I have now enjoyed my second meatloaf in my entire life? Crazy!
One year ago: Homemade Imo’s Pizza
Two years ago: Avocado Fries
MINI GREEK STYLE MEATLOAVES
10 oz. ground sirloin
5 oz. lean ground lamb
1/3 cup breadcrumbs
1/3 cup minced red onion
1 Tbsp chopped fresh mint
1 Tbsp chopped fresh thyme
1/4 tsp salt
1/4 tsp allspice
1/4 tsp crushed red pepper
3 garlic cloves, minced
1 egg, lightly beaten
1/2 cup plain fat-free Greek yogurt (I used 0% plain Chobani)
2 oz. reduced-fat feta, crumbled
1 Tbsp fresh lemon juice
1 tsp chopped fresh mint
1 tsp chopped fresh thyme
1 Tbsp fresh lemon juice
1 Tbsp extra-virgin olive oil
1/8 tsp salt
1/4 tsp pepper
4 cups baby arugula leaves
1-1/2 cups 1/4-inch diagonally sliced, seeded, peeled cucumber
- Preheat oven to 450 degrees. Coat eight muffin cups with nonstick spray, set aside.
- In a large bowl, combine meatloaf ingredients. Press mixture into prepared muffin cups. Bake for 7 minutes. Turn broiler on to high and broil for 3 minutes.
- While the meatloaves cook, combine sauce ingredients in a mini food processor. Pulse 10 times to combine.
- In another large bowl, whisk together lemon juice, olive oil, salt and pepper. Add arugula and cucumber then toss to coat.
- Serve meatloaves with a cup of salad and feta sauce on top.
Source: Cooking Light, May 2013
To say my weekend was eventful is an understatement, even for a birthday weekend. Friday night I watched the Grizzlies beat the Clippers and advance into the second round with a couple friends. I even brought along my giant margarita glass that I haven’t used since my 22nd birthday (6 years ago) and we all had a good time taking turning drinking that mammoth beverage. Saturday I went to see Iron Man 3, and had dinner and drinks with friends. I didn’t lay myself down into my own bed until almost 5am. Needless to say I slept in until about 1pm on Sunday and still managed to get my butt in gear for the final day of Beale Street Music Fest.
Today, my energy stores are pretty low and I anticipate many early to bed evenings this week to recharge. A good dose of healthy food probably won’t hurt either after all the dessert and other ridiculousness I consumed this weekend as well. Speaking of eating healthier things, I know that I may have scared a few of you already with the green tortilla chip coated chicken I shared last week, but I promise there’s nothing to be afraid of with these burgers either.
These edamame burgers are full of flavor and also surprisingly filling. My favorite part about them is not needing to shove my hands into raw meat! Don’t get me wrong I adore a full on meat patty, but trying to turn on the faucet and dispense soap in order to clean off your hands, all without contaminating other surfaces is an awkward task.
SPICY EDAMAME BUGERS
Makes 4 burgers
1/4 cup chopped white onion
2 garlic cloves
15 oz. shelled edamame, cooked and roughly chopped
2 Tbsp chopped fresh cilantro
1/3 cup bread crumbs
1 egg, lightly beaten
1/4 tsp red pepper flakes (or more to taste)
1/4 tsp salt
Generous sprinkle of pepper
4 toasted burger buns
- In a food processor, blend together onion, garlic, 2/3 of the edamame, cilantro, 1/2 of the bread crumbs, egg, red pepper flakes, salt and pepper until a thick paste forms.
- In a medium bowl combine this paste with the remaining edamame and bread crumbs. Fold together until just combined and then form 4 patties. Wrap in plastic and freeze them for later or cook them immediately.
- To cook, heat a little olive oil in a pan over medium heat. Lightly dredge the patty in flour. Cook in the oil until warmed through and crispy on both sides.
- Serve on toasted buns with your favorite toppings.
Source: Adapted slightly from A Beautiful Mess.
Prepare yourself, for an awesomely different looking chicken dish – it’s GREEN!! This is not Dr. Seuss’s green eggs and ham, we’re talking about Cinco de Mayo food!
In addition to the delicious strawberry margarita mix from On The Border, which I used to make the cupcakes I shared yesterday, I also received their Monterey Jack Queso, Medium Salsa, and Guac Blast Tortilla Chips. Did I get your attention with that last item? Because it surely caught my eye when I first saw them. They really are very green and since they taste like guacamole you almost don’t need to dip them in anything. But that didn’t stop me from dipping them into the Monterey Jack Queso… MmMmm.
I decided to have some fun with these products and used the chips as the breading for an oven-fried chicken. It resulted in a fabulously green and festive exterior, which was packed with flavor and crunch to boot. The queso was mixed up with some Greek yogurt (my favorite sour cream substitute), to then be dolloped on top of the cooked chicken along with some salsa and cheese. It’s a full blown Mexican fiesta all on one piece of chicken!
One year ago: Chocolate Chip Cookie Dough Brownies
Two years ago: Butterscotch Truffles
GUACAMOLE TORTILLA CHIP-CRUSTED NACHO CHICKEN
1/4 cup buttermilk
4-4 oz. chicken breasts
1/2 cup finely ground On The Border Guac Blast Tortilla Chips
1/4 cup plain Greek yogurt (or sour cream) (I used 0% plain Chobani)
1/2 cup On The Border Medium Salsa
1/2 cup shredded cheddar cheese
- Preheat oven to 425 degrees. Arrange a wire rack on a large baking sheet; coat rack with cooking spray. Set aside.
- Place buttermilk in a shallow dish. Add chicken to buttermilk, turning to coat.
- Place ground chips in another shallow dish. Remove chicken from buttermilk mixture; discard buttermilk mixture. Dredge chicken in ground chips, pressing slightly and turning to coat.
- Arrange chicken on rack; coat chicken with cooking spray. Bake for 13 minutes or until chicken is done.
- While the chicken cooks, combine the Greek yogurt and Monterey jack Queso in a small bowl. When the chicken is done, top with queso mixture, followed by salsa and shredded cheese. Put back in the oven until the cheese starts to melt; about 1-2 minutes.
Disclosure: I was provided with complimentary On The Border products by Truco Enterprises. I was not compensated for this post. All thoughts and opinions are my own.
Welcome to April’s edition of Pass the Cook Book Club, hosted by Kita of Pass the Sushi and Girl Carnivore (her newest brainchild)! This month we cooked from The Picky Palate Cookbook, written by Jenny Flake herself. I was super excited to dig into these recipes because her blog was one of the first food blogs I started reading back in the day.
Originally I had planned on making the mini peanut butter and jelly pies, but decided that I had to try out the quesdillas using mango because I was curious about the flavors. Unfortunately the recipe called for shrimp (being a non-seafood eater), but was an easy fix by substituting with chicken and was overjoyed with the results! Enveloping the chicken was a cream cheese mixture that was exceptionally creamy, while the mangoes added sweetness. You must make these, because every day that goes by without them is a missed opportunity for deliciousness.
One year ago: Chicken & Spinach Alfredo Pizza
Two years ago: Cake Batter Fruit Dip
CHICKEN MANGO QUESADILLAS
2 Tbsp olive oil
1/2 lb. chicken breasts, cut into bite-sized pieces
3/4 tsp salt, divided
1/2 tsp black pepper, divided
6 oz. reduced fat cream cheese, softened
1 cup shredded cheddar cheese
1/4 cup chopped fresh cilantro
4 Tbsp unsalted butter, softened, divided
1 cup chopped mango, divided (I used thawed, frozen mango)
4 whole wheat tortillas
- Heat the olive oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Add the chicken, 1/2 teaspoon of salt and 1/4 teaspoon of pepper and cook, stirring for 5 minutes or until no longer pink. Remove from the heat.
- In a medium bowl, add the cream cheese, cheddar, cilantro, and remaining salt and pepper and stir until well combined.
- Heat a separate large skillet over medium heat. Spread 1/4 cup of the cheese spread over the top of the tortilla. Top with 1/4 cup cooked chicken and 1/4 cup chopped mango over half of the tortilla. Melt 1 tablespoon of the butter in the skillet and place the tortilla in the skillet.
- With a spatula, fold the tortilla in half, cooking until golden brown, 2 to 3 minutes on each side. Remove from the skillet and cut the quesadilla into wedges to serve. Repeat with remaining ingredients.
Source: Adapted slightly from The Picky Palate Cookbook, page 123.
There are two situations in which I will always struggle to stay awake: journal club/seminar and watching TV while lying down. For journal club or seminar, it has nothing to do with the quality of the material presented but rather the darkness of the room or auditorium. No matter how energized I am before entering, I without fail will bob my head at least once. Of course when it’s over I return to my alert, awake state. Bizarre.
Then there’s falling asleep watching TV. If you ever watch TV with me, do not let me turn horizontal because I will be out before you know what happened. Again, I do not necessarily have to be tired but it’s probability of occurring increases with the lateness of the day. For this reason I have a chaise lounge attached to my sectional couch allowing me to stretch out yet stay upright and awake! And yes I own a huge sectional and live alone. ::sprawl::
However, I will never fall asleep in front of food so let’s talk about these burgers. Chicken burgers sometimes can end up a bit dry, but with the addition of Greek yogurt that does not happen here. I was drawn to these not only because of their use of Greek yogurt, but also the rosemary. The last time I made a chicken burger with rosemary it blew my mind – fresh rosemary adds such great flavor!
One year ago: Whole Wheat Thin Crust Pizza Dough
CHICKEN BURGERS WITH GARLIC-ROSEMARY GREEK YOGURT
Makes 4 burgers
GARLIC-ROSEMARY GREEK YOGURT
1/2 cup nonfat Greek yogurt (I used 0% Chobani)
2 Tbsp finely chopped fresh rosemary leaves
1 garlic clove, minced
Garlic-rosemary Greek yogurt (full quantity from above)
1/2 tsp salt
1/4 tsp black pepper
1 lb. ground chicken
4 toasted burger buns
Lettuce, tomato, mayo, etc. (for serving)
- Set a grill pan over medium to medium-high heat. Spray with nonstick cooking spray.
- In a medium bowl, stir together the Greek yogurt, rosemary, and garlic until well combined. Add the salt, pepper, and ground chicken and use your hands to gently mix together.
- Divide the mixture into 4 equal portions, and shape each into a 3/4-inch thick patty. Transfer to the grill pan, and cook the burgers for about 6 minutes per side, or until an instant-read thermometer inserted in the center registers 165 F.
- Serve on toasted buns with lettuce, tomato, extra mayo or your favorite burger toppings!
Source: Adapted slightly from Tracey’s Culinary Adventures.
It’s no secret that I am not a fan of summer weather in Memphis. You know, the season that starts in May and ends in October? Don’t be jealous unless you like 90+ temps, excessive humidity, and sweating at 7 am walking to your car. But for a few short weeks every year we get a small dose of spring. Granted it’s already hitting the high 80s some days so it’s not exactly spring weather, but this is the closest thing to spring I get before the inferno begins. During this time I drive everywhere with my car windows down while blasting music and singing at the top of my lungs (right now it’s Paramore’s new album). I freaking love spring and look forward to moving to a place where it lasts more than 2 weeks.
With the coming of heat waves and high electricity bills keeping it out of my 3rd floor apartment, recipes that require short cook times become more and more appealing. This recipes happens to be the fastest way to cook pizza ever. The prep time for making the dough and toppings is not short, but the actual cooking of the pizza is a whopping 2.5 minutes. Since you’ll end up with an extra ball of dough, throw easier toppings onto it and you will have a second pizza in under 5 minutes!
One year ago: Gnocchi with Roasted Red Pepper Cream Sauce
Two years ago: Nutella Mousse
CAST IRON SKILLET BRUSSELS SPROUTS BACON PIZZA
CRUST (NOTE: this recipe makes TWO doughs for a 12-inch skillet pizza)
1-1/8 cups warm water
1 pkg. (2-1/4 tsp) active dry yeast
1 Tbsp honey
1 Tbsp olive oil
1-1/2 cups all-purpose flour
1-1/2 cups white whole wheat flour
1 tsp salt
PIZZA (NOTE: these ingredients are for ONE pizza)
6 slices thick-cut bacon, chopped
1 shallot, sliced
2 garlic cloves, minced
1/2 lb. brussels sprouts, stems removed and thinly sliced
1/4 tsp pepper
1/8 tsp salt
4 oz. provolone cheese, freshly grated
4 oz. fontina cheese, freshly grated
2 Tbsp finely grated Parmesan cheese
- In a large bowl, combine water, yeast, honey and olive oil. Mix with a spoon, then let sit until foamy, about 10 minutes. Add in 2 1/2 cups flour and salt, stirring with a spoon until the dough comes together but it still sticky. Using your hands, form the dough into a ball and work in the additional 1/2 cup flour, kneading it on a floured surface for a few minutes. Drizzle the same bowl with olive oil then place the dough inside, turning to coat. Cover with a towel and place in a warm place to rise for about 1-1/2 hours.
- After the dough has risen, punch it down and place it back on the floured surface. Divide the dough evenly in half. Place one dough on a well-floured pizza peel and roll out to about the size of your skillet.
- Heat a different large skillet than the one you are going to cook your pizza in over medium heat and fry bacon until crispy. Remove bacon with a slotted spoon and place on a paper towel to drain. Remove all but 2 tablespoons of bacon grease from the skillet. Reduce heat to medium-low and add shallot. Cook for 5 minutes until soft, then add garlic, sliced brussels, salt and pepper, stirring well to coat. Cook for 6-8 minutes, tossing occasionally. Remove from heat and set aside.
- Place an oven rack directly under your broiler and preheat your broiler to the highest setting. Additionally, place your cast iron skillet on the stovetop burner, turning the heat on high. Heat the skillet for 10 minutes.
- While the skillet is heating, place the toppings on the dough. Add about half of the fontina and provolone cheeses, then cover with the brussels sprouts mixture and the bacon. Top with the remaining fontina, provolone and parmesan.
- Carefully slide the pizza into the skillet, dough side down. After about 30 seconds, turn off the burner, and place right under the broiler. Broil for 1 minute, rotate 180 degrees, broiling for only 1 more minute. Remove immediately and place on the stovetop. Let cool slightly for about 5 minutes, then use a large spatula to remove the pizza. Slice and serve.
Source: How Sweet It Is
On one of my most recent adventures to Nashville, I (of course) stopped in to Trader Joe’s to stock up on old and new favorites. This particular journey I found myself flinging all kinds of newly found items into my shopping cart. One item that became a projectile happened to be dried mini cheese ravioli. Just like a girl, I got all excited over their small cuteness.
Once I got them into my kitchen I found I couldn’t just throw them into just any old sauce – they were just too special. So I made a creamy pesto sauce by mixing pesto and Greek yogurt together and tossed in some roasted asparagus, garlic, and sun dried tomatoes. Roasting vegetables has become my go-to vegetable cooking method and the combination definitely did the mini raviolis justice. But feel free to use regular (less exciting) sized ravioli if you cannot find minis.
Two years ago: Guiltless Cajun Chicken Alfredo
CREAMY PESTO WITH MINI RAVIOLI, ASPARAGUS AND SUN DRIED TOMATOES
8 oz. mini cheese ravioli (I used Trader’s Joe’s)
1 lb. asparagus, trimmed
1/2 head of garlic, peeled and thinly sliced
Salt and pepper
Kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper, to taste
1/4 cup basil pesto
1/4 cup plain Greek yogurt (I use 2% Chobani)
1/3 cup julienned sun dried tomatoes, drained
- Preheat the oven to 450 degrees. Line a baking sheet with a silicone mat or parchment paper.
- In a large pot of boiling water, cook pasta according to package instructions; drain well and return to pot.
- While the pasta cooks, place the asparagus in a single layer onto the prepared baking sheet. Top with garlic slices, drizzle with olive oil, salt and pepper to taste; gently toss to combine.
- Place into the oven and roast for 8-12 minutes, or until tender but crisp. Let cool before cutting into 1.5-inch pieces.
- In the pot with the pasta, add and combine the asparagus, pesto, Greek yogurt, and sun dried tomatoes. Serve.
After 6 years of grad school you would think I would be completely dependent upon my slow cooker to provide sustenance. Somehow I’ve only started utilizing it frequently over the past year (and also maintained my blog without depending on it to do the cooking for me) and have discovered a whole new world of slow cooking that I never knew existed. I used to think slow cookers were only for stew-type meals, and a few years ago would’ve never dreamed of being able to cook oatmeal, dessert, or Asian cuisine in it. Most recently I enjoyed slow cooked chicken for tacos, which then lead me to try the same process for nachos.
Although my slow cooker is a bit temperamental and had to cook this on low for only 3 hours instead of the directed 6, at least I know my slow cooker well enough to do so. Since I do not have a slow cooker with a timer on it – just on, warm, low and high – I now use a plug timer. Before I used this method I could only use my slow cooker on the weekends, and that kind of defeats the purpose. Now I set it up right before I leave in the morning with the plug timer turning on a few hours after I leave so that it just finishes cooking when I get home. And what a great meal to come home to! Once it was all prepared with the toppings it was actually hard to believe it came from something as simple as a slow cooker.
One year ago: Cheesy Potato Casserole
SLOW COOKER CHICKEN NACHOS
2 chicken breasts
1 jarred whole roasted red pepper
1/2 cup salsa
1 tsp ground cumin
1 tsp chili powder
2 cloves garlic, minced
1 large pinch salt and pepper
1 (14.5 oz) can pinto beans, drained and rinsed
1/2 bag favorite tortilla chips
2 cups shredded sharp cheddar cheese
1/4 cup sour cream (I used 0% plain Chobani instead)
1/2 cup chopped cilantro leaves
1 scallion, finely sliced
1 avocado, diced
1 lime, for the juice
- In a slow cooker, place the chicken, roasted red pepper, salsa, cumin, chili powder, garlic, and a pinch of salt and pepper. Cook on high for three hours (or low for six)*.
- Once the chicken is cooked, take two forks and shred the chicken and pepper right in the cooker. Add the pinto beans, toss to combine and cook an additional 30 minutes.
- Arrange the chips on a large platter. Spoon the chicken and bean mixture over the chips. Sprinkle the cheese over the chicken. Pop the platter under the broiler for a couple of minutes to the get the cheese all browned and bubbly.
- Remove the platter from the oven and top with Greek yogurt, chopped cilantro, scallions and diced avocado. Squeeze of lime juice over the whole thing and enjoy!
*Cooking times may vary. My slow cooker cooks hot so it only took about 3 hours on low.
Source: Adapted slightly from Bev Cooks.
Finally decided to get a z-pack in order to fend away this lingering sinusitis that I’ve been battling, but it hasn’t seemed to greatly increase my recovery rate. I may be wrong, but I feel as though the improvements this far are merely my own body’s accomplishments. Guess that means it could be viral, but either way it’s been a week and I’m tired of having stopped up nose and ears. So with that, let’s talk about some healthy comfort food.
If you haven’t tried quinoa yet, this this is a great place to start. As someone who has played around with quinoa a bunch, this was by far my favorite recipe using quinoa. It’s a healthier version of Chicken Parm! I’m almost mad at myself for not trying it sooner, especially after Tracey raved about it. I did note that she mentioned missing the breading on the chicken in the recipe she posted, so I decided to bread my chicken up! Obviously I do not know what it would’ve been like without it, but was very pleased with the results.
Two years ago: White Bean Chicken Chili
BAKED QUINOA CHICKEN PARMESAN
1/4 cup low-fat buttermilk
16 oz. chicken breasts, cut into bite-sized pieces
1/2 cup toasted Panko breadcrumbs
2 Tbsp grated Parmesan cheese
1/4 tsp salt
1/4 tsp pepper
1 Tbsp olive oil
1 medium onion, finely chopped
3 garlic cloves, minced
2 Tbsp balsamic vinegar
1 (15 oz.) can tomato sauce
1 (15 oz.) can diced tomatoes (I prefer petite diced)
1/2 tsp red pepper flakes
1/2 tsp dried basil
1/2 tsp dried oregano
1 cup quinoa, well rinsed with cold water
2 cups low-sodium chicken broth
1 cup shredded part-skim mozzarella cheese, divided
2 Tbsp grated Parmesan cheese
2 Tbsp Panko breadcrumbs
2 Tbsp chopped fresh parsley
- Preheat oven to 425 degrees. Place a wire rack on a large baking sheet. Coat the rack with cooking spray and set aside. Also spray a 2-qt baking dish with nonstick cooking spray and set aside.
- To make the chicken: Place the buttermilk in one shallow dish, and then combine the Panko, Parmesan, salt and pepper in a second shallow dish. Add chicken pieces to the buttermilk, turning to coat. Remove and dredge in Panko mixture. Arrange chicken on prepared wire rack and spray tops with cooking spray. Bake for 10 minutes or until done. Set chicken aside.
- To make the sauce: Add the oil to a large saucepan set over medium heat. When it shimmers, add the onion and cook, stirring occasionally, until softened, about 5 minutes. Stir in the garlic and cook for 30 seconds to 1 minute, just until fragrant. Add the vinegar and scrape the bottom of the pan to release any browned bits. Continue cooking until the vinegar is almost completely absorbed. Stir in the tomato sauce, diced tomatoes, red pepper flakes, basil, oregano, and salt and pepper to taste. Bring the sauce to a gentle boil, then reduce the heat and allow to simmer as you continue with the recipe.
- To make the quinoa: Transfer the quinoa to a saucepan and add the chicken broth. Set over medium-high heat and bring to a boil, then cover and reduce the heat to low. Simmer for 20-25 minutes, or until the liquid has been absorbed.
- When the quinoa is almost done cooking, preheat oven to 375 degrees.
- Add the cooked quinoa and the chicken to the sauce and stir to combine. Add half of this mixture to the prepared baking dish then top with 1/2 cup of the mozzarella. Add the remaining half of the quinoa mixture and sprinkle with the remaining mozzarella. Top with the Parmesan cheese and then the breadcrumbs.
- Cover the dish with foil and bake for 15 minutes then remove the foil and bake for an additional 10 minutes, or until the cheese is bubbly and golden brown. Garnish with the parsley before serving.